The thin shell on the outside of Earth, the earth’s crust, contains many black-colored substances. Black coal which is of organic origin, black earths and several inorganic minerals, were all used as black pigments. Some minerals even belong to the most ancient black paints used by mankind. The group includes the following raw materials: (1) coal, (2) earths, (3) minerals.

Tab. 4a: Coal, earth and minerals. Raw materials for black watercolor pigments in chronological order according to sources from 1350-1500. Empty columns list potentially available materials
Tab. 4b: Coal, earths, minerals. References to black watercolor pigments in chronological order. Black: Fourteenth-fifteenth century, dark grey: Sixteenth century, light grey: Seventeenth century