Tab. 5a: Metal-related pigments. Raw materials for black watercolor pigments in chronological order according to sources from 1350-1500. Empty columns list potentially available materials
Tab. 5b: Metal-related pigments. References to black watercolor pigments in chronological order.

Black: Fourteenth-fifteenth century, dark grey: Sixteenth century, light grey: Seventeenth century

The production of bells and cannons, as well as specific processes of stained-glass manufacture, generated black pigments. These found their way into the ateliers of illuminators, a proof of the close intertwining of different artisanal professions. The group of metal-related black pigments consists of (1) Bronze-cast black and (2) Black copper vitreous pigment.